About Some of the Common Types of Cancers

Almost all the types of cancers are feared most by people. It is known that most cancers are treatable only when they are diagnosed at early stages of their growth. Besides, treatments of cancers have side-effects too. In short, there are enough reasons to be attentive towards symptoms of cancer, negligence towards which can be fatal.

Common Types of Cancers

Appendix Cancer

Carcinoids are one of the common tumors of Appendix. When one or more carcinoids grow larger than 1cm or 2cm then they become malignant and may cause cancer. Adenocarcinomas are other malignancies in appendices. Carcinoids that are less than 2cm in size are removed through appendectomy. Larger carcinoids and adenocarcinomas are treated through Right Hemicolectomy. Visible tumors and affected organs in the abdomen or pelvis are removed through cytoreductive surgery, which may be followed by chemotherapy for eradication of residues.

Intraocular Melanoma

This is one of the types of cancers that occur in the eyes. Melanocytes that give color to the eyes are affected by this cancer. Iris melanoma and Posterior Uveal melanoma are the two subtypes of this cancer. Treatment of Intraocular Melanoma depends upon the size of the tumor. Removal of the affected eye used to be the primary treatment earlier. Plaque Brachytherapy and other radiation treatment are generally adopted these days. Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery, external beam proton therapy, tumor resection, transpupillary thermotherapy, etc. are other eye cancer treatments.

Esophageal Cancer

Squamous cell cancer is a common subtype esophageal cancer. This cancer inflicts cell lines the upper portion of the esophagus. Pain and difficulty in swallowing are its symptoms. Small and localized tumors can be surgically treated with curative intent. However, palliative care is adopted for larger tumors as they are not usually operable. Chemotherapy, Radiotherapy or both are required to delay the growth of cancer. Such therapies may render larger tumors operable.

Oral Cancer

All types of cancers that occur in or around the oral cavity can be called oral cancers. Skin lesion, lumps, ulcers, etc. that prolong beyond fortnight can be suspected for cancer. Difficulty in swallowing, mouth sores, problems in tongue, pain, etc. are the symptoms of oral cancer. Certain stem cell transplant, consumption of alcohol, tobacco etc., premalignant lesions, human papillomavirus, etc. are some of the general causes of oral cancers.

Urethral Cancer

Cancers that occur in urethra are called urethral cancers. Blood in urine, urethral bleeding, weak flow of urine, enlarged lymph nodes at groin, frequent urination, lump in the penis, urethral discharge, etc. are the symptoms of urethral cancer. Adenocarcinoma, melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, transitional cell carcinoma, etc. are some of the types of cancers that occur in urethra. Urethra l cancer is generally surgically removed. Open excision, laser, cystourethrectomy, etc. are some surgeries to be mentioned.

Different Types of Blood Disorders

Blood disorders include different blood diseases and also involve problems in the blood forming organs. The blood disorders can affect any of these components.

  • Red Blood cells: These cells carry oxygen to different tissues in the body.
  • White blood cells: These cells help in fighting diseases.
  • Platelets: These help in protection from blood clot.

The prognosis and treatment of blood diseases varies and depends on severity and condition of blood. It is important to understand the types of blood disorders before treatment the problems. The types of blood disorders are as follows:

Types of Blood Disorders

Anemia

People who suffer from anemia face problems of red blood cells count. The amount of red blood cells is low in them and severe anemia can cause shortness of breath, pale skin, fatigue, etc.

Iron-deficiency Anemia

It is very important to have proper amount of iron in the body so that there is good amount of red blood cells. Low iron intake can cause iron-deficiency anemia and many times people require blood transfusion and iron pills due to this.

Lymphoma

This is a type of blood disorder that causes cancer in the lymph system. During lymphoma the white blood cells become malignant, spread abnormally and start multiplying. Two major kinds of lymphoma are non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and Hodgkin’s lymphoma. It requires chemotherapy and some radiation to improve the condition of lymphoma.

Leukemia

Among all types of blood disorders this problem causes the white blood cell to become malignant and also multiply inside the bone marrow. It can occur in two forms one is chronic leukemia and the other is chronic leukemia. Stem cell transplantation or chemotherapy can help in treating this problem.

Multiple Myeloma

In this type of blood disorder the plasma cell starts becoming malignant. Plasma cells start multiplying and also release some damaging substances that can eventually cause organ failure. To cure this problem one needs to go through chemotherapy or stem cell transplant.

Myelodysplastic Syndrome

This problem is known as family of blood cancers and mainly affects the bone marrow. It starts of very slowly and then suddenly triggers into severe leukemia. It requires blood transfusion and sometimes stem cell transplant in younger people can cure the problem.

Thalassemia

This is a different form of anemia that affects the people that in the Mediterranean heritage. It is very difficult to understand its symptoms and treatment is difficult.

Sickle Cell Anemia

This is a genetic form of blood disorder that mainly affects the African-Americans. In this problem the red blood cells start changing their shape and start blocking the blood flow. Organ damage and severe pain tends to occur.

Malaria

In this problem the bite of a mosquito transmits some parasite into the human body and affects the red blood cells. Then people suffer from fever, red blood cells get ruptured, and there is a possibility of severe organ damage. It is most common in the African regions.

Description of Some Various Blood Disorders in Children

Blood disorders in children are caused due to almost the same reasons that cause blood disorders among adults, except the abuse of intoxicant. Heartbeat-rate of children is greater than adults, which signifies the importance of quick medical treatment for children for any kind of disorder.

Anaemia

The deficiency of Haemoglobin or Red Blood Cells (RBC) in the human body is called Anaemia. Untreated Anaemia, in any form, may become acute issue due to the fact that Haemoglobin is the protein that carries oxygen in blood while WBC fights harmful foreign agents. There are certain types of Anaemia, such as:

  • Aplastic anaemia – The condition of too little production of RBCs, WBCs and Platelets in bone marrow is termed aplastic anaemia.
  • Haemolytic anaemia – Anaemia caused due to premature destruction of Haemoglobin is called Haemolytic anaemia.
  • Haemorrhagic anaemia – Rapid loss of large quantity of blood can also anaemia, termed Haemorrhagic anaemia.
  • Iron Deficiency anaemia – The most common form of anaemia is Iron Deficiency anaemia. It is caused due to lack of sufficient iron in blood, which is the chief constituent of Haemoglobin.
  • Megaloblastic anaemia – The inadequate production of RBCs due to deficiency of either Vitamin B or Vitamin B12 is named Megaloblastic anaemia. It is one of rare types of anaemia.

Blood Disorders in Children

Haemophilia – The inability of blood to clot normally has been named Haemophilia. It is also called coagulation disorder. Haemophilia A and Haemophilia B are types of this blood disorder that are caused due deficiency of protein factor VIII and protein factor IX respectively.

ITP – The blood disorder that is characterized by abnormal decrease in numbers of blood platelets is known as Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura or ITP. Loss of blood platelets due to ITP causes internal bleeding. This disorder can be acute or chronic.

Leukaemia – It is more popularly known as blood cancer among people. Leukaemia is caused due to various reasons and is classified accordingly. Types of Leukaemia are

ALL – Acute Lymphocytic Leukaemia or ALL is a kind of blood cancer. In this condition, immature lymphocytes that are not fully formed are found in blood, bone marrow, liver, spleen and other organs in large numbers. Lymphocytes are a type of White Blood Cells (WBCs). This blood cancer is rapidly progressing among humans.

AML – Similar to ALL, AML is the condition of abundant presence of immature granulocytes in blood and bone marrow. Granulocytes are also a type of WBC. AML denotes Acute Myelogenous Leukaemia.

CML – It slightly different from AML. Chronic Myelogenous Leukaemia or CML is the term used to denote excessive production of granulocytes of WBCs in bone marrow of human beings.

Myeloproliferative Disorder – The blood disorder in which bone marrow produces any one type of blood cells among RBC, WBC and platelets in excess is called Myeloproliferative disorder.

Awareness of Symptoms of Allergies Is Best for Prevention Against Allergens

Allergy is the reaction of immune system towards certain living or non living objects. Awareness of symptoms of allergies can help people avoid unnecessary difficulty.

Symptoms of Cockroach allergy – Persistent cough, persistently stuffy nose, sensation of stiffness in the chest, short breaths, skin rashes and wheezing are the common symptoms of cockroach allergy.

Symptoms of drug allergy – If consumption of certain drugs instigates breathing issues, hives, itchy skin, skin rashes, swelling of body parts, wheezing, etc., from which the person does not suffer otherwise then the doctor who prescribed the medication should be consulted regarding the issue. An allergist can assist in such cases too be consulted. However, Pseudo-allergic reactions are not drug reactions although they may seem so. They are the result of body’s response to certain medication that a patient consumes for the first time. Anaphylaxis is also a symptom of drug allergy apart from those stated above. However, anaphylaxis occurs suddenly and worsens quickly. In worse cases, it may lead to even death.

Symptoms of Allergies

Symptoms of Food allergy – Generally, cardiovascular tracts, gastrointestinal tracts, respiratory tracts and skin are affected by food allergies. Mild symptoms of food allergies are isolated hives, itchy mouth, mild nausea, etc. Severe symptoms of food allergy include change of skin color blue or pale, confusion, diarrhea, dizziness, hoarse or tight throat, indigestion, repetitive cough, short breath, stomach cramp, trouble in swallowing, vomiting, weak pulse, wheezing, etc.

Symptoms of insect sting allergy – Anaphylaxis is the term that is used to refer to insect sting reaction. Difficulty in breathing, cardiac arrest, dizziness, hives, hoarse voice, itchiness, , sharp decline in blood pressure, swelling of parts of body other than the stung part, swelling of tongue and unconsciousness are symptoms of insect sting allergy.

Symptoms of latex allergy – Hives, itching, running nose, stuffy nose, etc. are the symptoms of latex allergy. It develops after multiple exposures to latex. Asthma symptoms such as breathing issues, tight chest, wheezing, etc. can also be symptoms of latex allergy. Anaphylaxis can be the result in severe cases of latex allergy. Swelling or redness of skin on contact with products that contain latex is another clear symptom. Blisters and eczema at the back of hands are symptoms of allergic contact dermatitis that is instigated due to contact with rubber gloves.

Symptoms of mould allergy – Like most other allergies, symptoms of mould allergy include breathing issues, coughing, hives, itchy eyes, itchy internal ears or throat, running or stuffy nose, sneezing, swollen eyelids, wheezing, etc.

Symptoms of Rhinitis – Nasal inflammation or irritation are the symptoms of Rhinitis apart from itch, running or stuffy nose and sneezes.

Sinusitis – Facial pain, headache, nasal congestion and running nose are the symptoms of sinusitis as well as effects of severe cold. However, the two should not be mistaken.

Some Common Types of Food Allergies

Food allergies are often seen to be one of the most prevalent diseases among children. However it is not limited to them as many adults have also been known to be affected by this to a large extent. Some of the allergic reactions are due to milk, peanuts, eggs, wheat and nuts. Usually many children are seen to grow up with allergic reactions during their childhood. Some of the vital things which seem to be the reason behind allergic reactions among adults include the fishes, fruits, peanuts, wheat and citrus. Some of the allergies have been discussed below:

types of food allergies

Cereal Allergy

There are several cereals which are known to be the reason behind several allergic reactions among sensitive children as well as adults. Some of them include wheat, oats, maize, rice, and barley.

Coconut Allergy

There are many people who are quite sensitive to coconuts. This can be present in people who are allergic to nuts or latex.

Coeliac Disease

The mixture of several proteins is termed as Gluten. These proteins are found in cereals, rye, wheat and barley. Coeliac disease is often referred to as Gluten intolerance which can be a lifelong disease for many. The disease may lead to damage to the lining of small intestine. This disease has also been known to be present in families and generations.

Egg Allergy

A common allergy among many children is egg allergy which is usually known to grow out till they reach the age of three.

Fish Allergy

There are many who are known to be allergic to fish. This often leads to severe reactions among some people. This reaction is prevalent in many adults where there are many who are allergic to a specific kind of fish.

Vegetable and Fruits Allergy

Food allergies due to some vegetables and Fruit are quite prevalent among adults. These are known to affect the mouth and lead to itching in several cases. It is termed as allergy syndrome.

Lactose Intolerance

The sugar which is found in milk in the natural form is termed as Lactose. This makes it more important for distinguishing between lactose intolerance and milk allergy. The reason to say this is that milk allergy often causes severe reactions. Lactose intolerance can react due to shortage of enzyme lactase that is required to be broken down so that it is absorbed in the right manner.

Maize Allergy

Corn allergy which is not that common in the European region has been reported in many other countries across the world. There are people who are known to be sensitive towards maize where it can be very difficult to avoid due to the fact that maize is one of the most common commodity consumed.

There are several other foods which people are allergic to. The above article has compiled some of the most common forms of food allergies which have been prevalent among individuals for years now.