The cause of some of the common blood disorders is minor or major change in function or composition of blood. Since blood is cellular fluid that carries nutrients and oxygen to all parts of human body, its malfunction affects body differently in different conditions. Hereunder are brief descriptions of some common blood disorders.
Deficiency of red blood cells (RBC) in the body is termed as Anaemia. Anaemia is associated with various deficiencies, such as vitamin foliate deficiency, B12 deficiency, etc. Dizziness, fatigue, short breath, etc. are the most common but not the only symptoms of Anaemia.
Excessive production of iron in the human body causes Haemochromatosis. The excessive iron accumulates in cells of heart, liver, pancreas, etc. Bleeding and shedding of intestinal cells and skin are the only method by which human body can lose extra iron. Haemochromatosis may lead to cirrhosis of liver, diabetes, early female menopause, heart failure, joint pain and liver failure, if it is not diagnosed and treated early. It may cause liver cancer in rare circumstances.
The disorder that causes abnormal blood clotting is termed Haemophilia. It is one of the rare blood disorders and caused due to the lack of specific protein that is required for clotting of blood. Longer-than-normal bleeding may damage organs and tissues of people who suffer from this disorder.
The more popular term for Leukaemia is blood cancer. In this disease, human body produces excessive white blood cells (WBC) and consequently breaks-down the immunity of the body. Somatic mutation of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that is responsible for the activation or deactivation of tumor-suppressor genes. Leukaemia may occur due to exposure to carcinogenic substances or radiation.
Sickle Cell Disease
The deformation of RBCs to C-shaped cells is called Sickle Cell disease, in which the term sickle is used to describe the c-shape of cells. Sickle cells stick to the walls of blood vessels, which blocks circulation of blood and causes severe shortage of blood. Chronic Acute Pain Syndrome, severe bacterial infections, etc. are results of blockage of blood vessels and poor level of blood-oxygen in the body.
The production of abnormal form of Haemoglobin by human body causes Thalassaemia. Haemoglobin is the protein in RBCs that carries oxygen. Thalassaemia is generally inherited through generations genetically. It causes excessive destruction of RBCs and, consequently, Anaemia.
Abnormal decline of blood platelets in the human body is the symptom of Thrombocytopenia. People who suffer from it face high risk of bleeding as bleeding does stop due to delay in blood clotting.
Sitting in a specific posture for long hours causes Thrombophlebitis. Generally, people who regularly travel develop this kind of blood disorder. Blood clot in lower limbs is the most common effect of this issue.