Basic Knowledge of Common Blood Disorders That Affect Human Beings

The cause of some of the common blood disorders is minor or major change in function or composition of blood. Since blood is cellular fluid that carries nutrients and oxygen to all parts of human body, its malfunction affects body differently in different conditions. Hereunder are brief descriptions of some common blood disorders.

Anaemia

Deficiency of red blood cells (RBC) in the body is termed as Anaemia. Anaemia is associated with various deficiencies, such as vitamin foliate deficiency, B12 deficiency, etc. Dizziness, fatigue, short breath, etc. are the most common but not the only symptoms of Anaemia.

Haemochromatosis

Excessive production of iron in the human body causes Haemochromatosis. The excessive iron accumulates in cells of heart, liver, pancreas, etc. Bleeding and shedding of intestinal cells and skin are the only method by which human body can lose extra iron. Haemochromatosis may lead to cirrhosis of liver, diabetes, early female menopause, heart failure, joint pain and liver failure, if it is not diagnosed and treated early. It may cause liver cancer in rare circumstances.

Common Blood Disorders

Haemophilia

The disorder that causes abnormal blood clotting is termed Haemophilia. It is one of the rare blood disorders and caused due to the lack of specific protein that is required for clotting of blood. Longer-than-normal bleeding may damage organs and tissues of people who suffer from this disorder.

Leukaemia

The more popular term for Leukaemia is blood cancer. In this disease, human body produces excessive white blood cells (WBC) and consequently breaks-down the immunity of the body. Somatic mutation of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that is responsible for the activation or deactivation of tumor-suppressor genes. Leukaemia may occur due to exposure to carcinogenic substances or radiation.

Sickle Cell Disease

The deformation of RBCs to C-shaped cells is called Sickle Cell disease, in which the term sickle is used to describe the c-shape of cells. Sickle cells stick to the walls of blood vessels, which blocks circulation of blood and causes severe shortage of blood. Chronic Acute Pain Syndrome, severe bacterial infections, etc. are results of blockage of blood vessels and poor level of blood-oxygen in the body.

Thalassaemia

The production of abnormal form of Haemoglobin by human body causes Thalassaemia. Haemoglobin is the protein in RBCs that carries oxygen. Thalassaemia is generally inherited through generations genetically. It causes excessive destruction of RBCs and, consequently, Anaemia.

Thrombocytopenia

Abnormal decline of blood platelets in the human body is the symptom of Thrombocytopenia. People who suffer from it face high risk of bleeding as bleeding does stop due to delay in blood clotting.

Thrombophlebitis

Sitting in a specific posture for long hours causes Thrombophlebitis. Generally, people who regularly travel develop this kind of blood disorder. Blood clot in lower limbs is the most common effect of this issue.

Symptoms and Consequences of Blood Clotting Disorders

Impairment in blood’s ability to clot is what leads to blood clotting disorders. The disorder is genetic and inheriting certain conditions like protein S deficiency, protein C deficiency, prothrombin, 20210A mutation, anti-thrombin deficiency, and Factor-V Leiden. A huge number of people throughout the world suffer from Thrombophilia, which is the condition of increased rate of blood clotting.

People, who either suffer thrombosis conditions either frequently or in an isolated event, can be said to be suffering from Thrombophilia. The disease or disorder being genetic may sometimes show in the individuals inheriting this or may not show. Such people have a greater tendency to suffer thrombosis. Thrombosis refers to the development of clotting of blood. There are instances also of such people who have thrombophilic condition but they might never suffer thrombosis.

Blood Clotting Disorders

The arterial system and the venous system constitute the vascular system. The arteries carry blood from the heart to the tissues and the veins do the reverse action. The symptoms of thrombosis depend on the part of the vascular systems where they occur and also on the extent to which they journey to the other parts of the vessel. Though a lot has been found out about the tendency of excessive blood clotting, a lot remains to found about the reasons of the blood clotting disorders in certain families.

Thrombosis conditions can be common to both men and women. However, there are definite reasons for women to suffer more for reproductive issues. The disorder in women can lead to complications in conceiving to the extent to of causing miscarriage. A number of reasons such as that taking oral contraceptives, pregnancy, and menopausal hormone therapy can cause Deep Vein Thrombosis or DVT in women who have thrombosis conditions.

Thrombophila is the reverse of what haemophilia implies. Whereas haemophilia refers to the absence of the blood clotting factors, leading to excessive bleeding when injured, thrombophila is the tendency of the blood to form clots at a greater rate than is desirable.

People suffering from blood clotting disorders have been reported to suffer several health consequences for a longer period. The disease can also affect the quality of life of the people suffering from this. People in most of the cases suffer death due to the clots transported to a smaller blood vessel from another vessel thus leading to a blockade. About thirty percent of the people suffering blood clotting disorders suffer pulmonary embolism, where emboli signifies a clot. In pulmonary embolism, the clot travels to the lungs obstructing the flow of blood to the organ.

Thrombophilia is another one of the blood clotting disorders and the symptoms for thrombophilia are seen both in the adults and the children. But adults show the symptoms more than the children because of obvious changes in haemostatic balance which take place with ageing.

Different Types of Blood Disorders

Blood disorders include different blood diseases and also involve problems in the blood forming organs. The blood disorders can affect any of these components.

  • Red Blood cells: These cells carry oxygen to different tissues in the body.
  • White blood cells: These cells help in fighting diseases.
  • Platelets: These help in protection from blood clot.

The prognosis and treatment of blood diseases varies and depends on severity and condition of blood. It is important to understand the types of blood disorders before treatment the problems. The types of blood disorders are as follows:

Types of Blood Disorders

Anemia

People who suffer from anemia face problems of red blood cells count. The amount of red blood cells is low in them and severe anemia can cause shortness of breath, pale skin, fatigue, etc.

Iron-deficiency Anemia

It is very important to have proper amount of iron in the body so that there is good amount of red blood cells. Low iron intake can cause iron-deficiency anemia and many times people require blood transfusion and iron pills due to this.

Lymphoma

This is a type of blood disorder that causes cancer in the lymph system. During lymphoma the white blood cells become malignant, spread abnormally and start multiplying. Two major kinds of lymphoma are non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and Hodgkin’s lymphoma. It requires chemotherapy and some radiation to improve the condition of lymphoma.

Leukemia

Among all types of blood disorders this problem causes the white blood cell to become malignant and also multiply inside the bone marrow. It can occur in two forms one is chronic leukemia and the other is chronic leukemia. Stem cell transplantation or chemotherapy can help in treating this problem.

Multiple Myeloma

In this type of blood disorder the plasma cell starts becoming malignant. Plasma cells start multiplying and also release some damaging substances that can eventually cause organ failure. To cure this problem one needs to go through chemotherapy or stem cell transplant.

Myelodysplastic Syndrome

This problem is known as family of blood cancers and mainly affects the bone marrow. It starts of very slowly and then suddenly triggers into severe leukemia. It requires blood transfusion and sometimes stem cell transplant in younger people can cure the problem.

Thalassemia

This is a different form of anemia that affects the people that in the Mediterranean heritage. It is very difficult to understand its symptoms and treatment is difficult.

Sickle Cell Anemia

This is a genetic form of blood disorder that mainly affects the African-Americans. In this problem the red blood cells start changing their shape and start blocking the blood flow. Organ damage and severe pain tends to occur.

Malaria

In this problem the bite of a mosquito transmits some parasite into the human body and affects the red blood cells. Then people suffer from fever, red blood cells get ruptured, and there is a possibility of severe organ damage. It is most common in the African regions.

Description of Some Various Blood Disorders in Children

Blood disorders in children are caused due to almost the same reasons that cause blood disorders among adults, except the abuse of intoxicant. Heartbeat-rate of children is greater than adults, which signifies the importance of quick medical treatment for children for any kind of disorder.

Anaemia

The deficiency of Haemoglobin or Red Blood Cells (RBC) in the human body is called Anaemia. Untreated Anaemia, in any form, may become acute issue due to the fact that Haemoglobin is the protein that carries oxygen in blood while WBC fights harmful foreign agents. There are certain types of Anaemia, such as:

  • Aplastic anaemia – The condition of too little production of RBCs, WBCs and Platelets in bone marrow is termed aplastic anaemia.
  • Haemolytic anaemia – Anaemia caused due to premature destruction of Haemoglobin is called Haemolytic anaemia.
  • Haemorrhagic anaemia – Rapid loss of large quantity of blood can also anaemia, termed Haemorrhagic anaemia.
  • Iron Deficiency anaemia – The most common form of anaemia is Iron Deficiency anaemia. It is caused due to lack of sufficient iron in blood, which is the chief constituent of Haemoglobin.
  • Megaloblastic anaemia – The inadequate production of RBCs due to deficiency of either Vitamin B or Vitamin B12 is named Megaloblastic anaemia. It is one of rare types of anaemia.

Blood Disorders in Children

Haemophilia – The inability of blood to clot normally has been named Haemophilia. It is also called coagulation disorder. Haemophilia A and Haemophilia B are types of this blood disorder that are caused due deficiency of protein factor VIII and protein factor IX respectively.

ITP – The blood disorder that is characterized by abnormal decrease in numbers of blood platelets is known as Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura or ITP. Loss of blood platelets due to ITP causes internal bleeding. This disorder can be acute or chronic.

Leukaemia – It is more popularly known as blood cancer among people. Leukaemia is caused due to various reasons and is classified accordingly. Types of Leukaemia are

ALL – Acute Lymphocytic Leukaemia or ALL is a kind of blood cancer. In this condition, immature lymphocytes that are not fully formed are found in blood, bone marrow, liver, spleen and other organs in large numbers. Lymphocytes are a type of White Blood Cells (WBCs). This blood cancer is rapidly progressing among humans.

AML – Similar to ALL, AML is the condition of abundant presence of immature granulocytes in blood and bone marrow. Granulocytes are also a type of WBC. AML denotes Acute Myelogenous Leukaemia.

CML – It slightly different from AML. Chronic Myelogenous Leukaemia or CML is the term used to denote excessive production of granulocytes of WBCs in bone marrow of human beings.

Myeloproliferative Disorder – The blood disorder in which bone marrow produces any one type of blood cells among RBC, WBC and platelets in excess is called Myeloproliferative disorder.